Seit mehr als 30 Jahren ist A Christmas Carol ein Fixpunkt der Wiener Theaterlandschaft und wird dies hoffentlich für die nächsten 30 Jahre bleiben. Begleiten. A Christmas Carol. von Charles Dickens / Gastspiel der American Drama Group Europe. Der hartherzige und geizige Geschäftsmann Ebenezer Scrooge. Die berühmte Weihnachtsgeschichte um den geizigen Ebenezer Scrooge zählt zu den beliebtesten Werken von Charles Dickens. Der boshafte alte Geizhals. Jordan argues that A Christmas Carol shows what Dickens referred to in a letter to Foster as his euro lotto wahrscheinlichkeit Carol philosophy, cheerful views, sharp anatomisation of humbug, jolly good temper Six Shot Showdown Slots - Play RTG Slot Machines for Free Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Horton Hears a Who! Bob Cratchit Bernard Lloyd: The singing of carols was further popularised in the 20th century when OUP published one of the most popular carol books in the Beste Spielothek in Katterbach finden world, Carols for Choirs. Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs When a massive fire tabelle ohne videobeweis their parents, askgamblers slotty vegas children are delivered to the custody of cousin and stage actor Count Olaf, who is secretly plotting to steal their parents' vast fortune. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Retrieved 7 October Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen.
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Little research has been conducted on carol singing, but one of the few sociological studies of caroling in the early 21st century in Finland determined that the sources of songs are often misunderstood, and that it is simplistic to suggest caroling is mostly related to Christian beliefs, for it also reinforces preservation of diverse national customs and local family traditions.
A modern form of the practice of caroling can be seen in " Dial-A-Carol ," an annual tradition held by students at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign , wherein potential audiences call the singers to request a performance over phone call.
It is not clear whether the word carol derives from the French "carole" or the Latin "carula" meaning a circular dance. In any case the dancing seems to have been abandoned quite early.
Traditionally, carols have often been based on medieval chord patterns, and it is this that gives them their uniquely characteristic musical sound.
Some carols like " Personent hodie ", " Good King Wenceslas ", and " The Holly and the Ivy " can be traced directly back to the Middle Ages , and are among the oldest musical compositions still regularly sung.
Compositions continue to be written that become popular carols. For example, many of the carols written by Alfred Burt are sung regularly in both sacred and secular settings, and are among the better known modern Christmas carols.
Almost all the well-known carols were not sung in church until the second half of the 19th century. Isaac Watts , the "father of English hymnody", composed " Joy to the World ", which has become a popular Christmas carol even though it is widely believed that Watts did not write it to be sung only at Christmas.
Charles Wesley wrote texts for at least three Christmas carols, of which the best known was originally entitled "Hark!
How All the Welkin Rings", later edited to " Hark! Cummings to fit Wesley's words. This combination first appeared in "Hymns Ancient and Modern" in The carol was first performed in the Nikolaus-Kirche Church of St.
Nicholas in Oberndorf , Austria on 24 December Mohr had composed the words much earlier, in , but on Christmas Eve brought them to Gruber and asked him to compose a melody and guitar accompaniment for the church service.
Several different Christmas episodes, apart from the birth of Jesus itself, are described in Christmas carols, such as:.
In addition, some carols describe Christmas-related events of a religious nature, but not directly related to the birth of Jesus.
Nineteenth-century antiquarians rediscovered early carols in museums. Some are wassailing songs, some are religious songs in English, some are in Latin, and some are " macaronic " — a mixture of English and Latin.
Since most people did not understand Latin, the implication is that these songs were composed for church choristers, or perhaps for an educated audience at the Royal courts.
The most famous survival of these early macaronic carols is "The Boar's Head". The tradition of singing carols outside of church services early in the nineteenth century is best illustrated by Thomas Hardy 's novel " Under the Greenwood Tree " Money collected in this way is now normally given to charity.
Singing carols in church was instituted on Christmas Eve in Truro Cathedral , Cornwall, see article on Nine Lessons and Carols , and now seen in churches all over the world.
Shortly before, in , the Salvation Army , under Charles Fry, instituted the idea of playing carols at Christmas, using a brass band.
Carols can be sung by individual singers, but are also often sung by larger groups, including professionally trained choirs. Most churches have special services at which carols are sung, generally combined with readings from scripture about the birth of Christ; this is often based on the famous Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols at King's College, Cambridge.
In the s and s, two French composers incorporated carols into their works. Louis-Claude Daquin wrote 12 noels for organ. In Austria, Belgium and Germany, Christmas is celebrated by some with children dressing as "The Three Kings", carrying a star on a pole.
Going from house to house from New Year's Day to 6 January, the children sing religious songs and are called "star singers". They are often rewarded with sweets or money, which is typically given to a local church or charity.
B" is written in chalk on houses they have visited. Although this is sometimes taken as a reference to the three kings — Caspar, Melchior and Balthasar — it may originally have represented the words Christus mansionem benedicat Christ bless this house.
In Australia, South Africa and New Zealand, where it is the middle of summer at Christmas, there is a tradition of Carols by Candlelight concerts held outdoors at night in cities and towns across the country, during the weeks leading up to Christmas.
First held in Melbourne, "Carols by Candlelight" is held each Christmas Eve in capital cities and many smaller cities and towns around Australia.
Performers at the concerts include opera singers, musical theatre performers and popular music singers. People in the audience hold lit candles and join in singing some of the carols in accompaniment with the celebrities.
Similar events are now held all over Australia, usually arranged by churches, municipal councils, or other community groups.
They are normally held on Christmas Eve or the Sunday or weekend before Christmas. A similar recent trend in South Africa and New Zealand are for smaller towns to host their own Carols by Candlelight concerts.
These referred to the hot dry December of the Australian outback, dancing brolgas a native Australian crane , and similar Australian features.
Some carols familiar in English are translations of German Christmas songs Weihnachtslieder. Pastoral Weihnachtslieder are sometimes called Hirtenlieder "shepherd songs".
Martin Luther wrote the carol " Vom Himmel hoch, da komm ich her ", which can be acted as a play of the Christmas history. He also wrote " Gelobet seist du, Jesu Christ " and " Christum wir sollen loben schon ".
The writer Charles Dickens was born to a middle class family which got into financial difficulties as a result of the spendthrift nature of his father John.
In John was committed to the Marshalsea , a debtors' prison in Southwark , London. Dickens, aged 12, was forced to pawn his collection of books, leave school and work at a dirty and rat-infested shoe-blacking factory.
The change in circumstances gave him what his biographer, Michael Slater, describes as a "deep personal and social outrage", which heavily influenced his writing and outlook.
By the end of Dickens was a well-established author, having written six major works, [n 1] as well as several short stories, novellas and other works.
Celebrating the Christmas season had been growing in popularity through the Victorian era. Their practice was copied in many homes across the country.
Dickens had an interest in Christmas, and his first story on the subject was "Christmas Festivities", published in Bell's Weekly Messenger in ; the story was then published as "A Christmas Dinner" in Sketches by Boz In the episode, a Mr Wardle relates the tale of Gabriel Grub, a lonely and mean-spirited sexton , who undergoes a Christmas conversion after being visited by goblins who show him the past and future.
Dickens was not the first author to celebrate the Christmas season in literature. Several works may have had an influence on the writing of A Christmas Carol , including two Douglas Jerrold essays: Dickens was touched by the lot of poor children in the middle decades of the 19th century.
It was a parliamentary report exposing the effects of the Industrial Revolution upon working class children.
Horrified by what he read, Dickens planned to publish an inexpensive political pamphlet tentatively titled, An Appeal to the People of England, on behalf of the Poor Man's Child , but changed his mind, deferring the pamphlet's production until the end of the year.
In a fundraising speech on 5 October at the Manchester Athenaeum , Dickens urged workers and employers to join together to combat ignorance with educational reform,  and realised in the days following that the most effective way to reach the broadest segment of the population with his social concerns about poverty and injustice was to write a deeply felt Christmas narrative rather than polemical pamphlets and essays.
By mid Dickens began to suffer from financial problems. Sales of Martin Chuzzlewit were falling off, and his wife, Catherine , was pregnant with their fifth child.
George Cruikshank , the illustrator who had earlier worked with Dickens on Sketches by Boz and Oliver Twist , introduced him to the caricaturist John Leech.
By 24 October Dickens invited Leech to work on A Christmas Carol , and four hand-coloured etchings and four black-and-white wood engravings by the artist accompanied the text.
The central character of A Christmas Carol is Ebenezer Scrooge, a miserly London-based moneylender,  described in the story as "a squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous old sinner!
This psychological conflict may be responsible for the two radically different Scrooges in the tale—one a cold, stingy and greedy semi-recluse, the other a benevolent, sociable man.
Scrooge could also be based on two misers: Elwell, Scrooge's views on the poor are a reflection of those of the demographer and political economist Thomas Malthus ,  while the miser's questions "Are there no prisons?
And the Union workhouses? The treadmill and the Poor Law are in full vigour, then? There are literary precursors for Scrooge in Dickens's own works.
Peter Ackroyd , Dickens's biographer, sees similarities between the character and the elder Martin Chuzzlewit character, although the miser is "a more fantastic image" than the Chuzzlewit patriarch; Ackroyd observes that Chuzzlewit's transformation to a charitable figure is a parallel to that of the miser.
The grave was for Ebenezer Lennox Scroggie, whose job was given as a meal man—a corn merchant; Dickens misread the inscription as "mean man".
When Dickens was young he lived near a tradesman's premises with the sign "Goodge and Marney", which may have provided the name for Scrooge's former business partner.
The transformation of Scrooge is central to the story. Other writers, including Kelly, consider that Dickens put forward a "secular vision of this sacred holiday".
Jordan argues that A Christmas Carol shows what Dickens referred to in a letter to Foster as his " Carol philosophy, cheerful views, sharp anatomisation of humbug, jolly good temper Dickens wrote A Christmas Carol in response to British social attitudes towards poverty, particularly child poverty, and wished to use the novella as a means to put forward his arguments against it.
As the result of the disagreements with Chapman and Hall over the commercial failures of Martin Chuzzlewit ,  Dickens arranged to pay for the publishing himself, in exchange for a percentage of the profits.
The first printing contained drab olive endpapers that Dickens felt were unacceptable, and the publisher Chapman and Hall quickly replaced them with yellow endpapers, but, once replaced, those clashed with the title page, which was then redone.
Chapman and Hall issued second and third editions before the new year, and the book continued to sell well into According to Douglas-Fairhurst, contemporary reviews of A Christmas Carol "were almost uniformly kind".
The last two people I heard speak of it were women; neither knew the other, or the author, and both said, by way of criticism, 'God bless him!
The poet Thomas Hood , in his own journal , wrote that "If Christmas, with its ancient and hospitable customs, its social and charitable observances, were ever in danger of decay, this is the book that would give them a new lease.
There were critics of the book. The New Monthly Magazine praised the story, but thought the book's physical excesses—the gilt edges and expensive binding—kept the price high, making it unavailable to the poor.
The review recommended that the tale should be printed on cheap paper and priced accordingly. Following criticism of the US in American Notes and Martin Chuzzlewit , American readers were less enthusiastic at first, but by the end of the American Civil War , copies of the book were in wide circulation.
In January Parley's Illuminated Library published an unauthorised version of the story in a condensed form which they sold for twopence.
I have not the least doubt that if these Vagabonds can be stopped they must. Let us be the sledge-hammer in this, or I shall be beset by hundreds of the same crew when I come out with a long story.
Two days after the release of the Parley version, Dickens sued on the basis of copyright infringement and won. Dickens returned to the tale several times during his life to amend the phrasing and punctuation.
He capitalised on the success of the book by publishing other Christmas stories The Chimes , The Cricket on the Hearth , The Battle of Life and The Haunted Man and the Ghost's Bargain ; these were secular conversion tales which acknowledged the progressive societal changes of the previous year, and highlighted those social problems which still needed to be addressed.
While the public eagerly bought the later books, the reviewers were highly critical of the stories. By Dickens was engaged with David Copperfield and had neither the time nor the inclination to produce another Christmas book.
In the years following the book's publication, responses to the tale were published by W. The novella was adapted for the stage almost immediately.
Three productions opened on 5 February , one by Edward Stirling being sanctioned by Dickens and running for more than 40 nights. Davis considers the adaptations have become better remembered than the original.
Some of Dickens's scenes — visiting the miners and lighthouse keepers — have been forgotten by many, while other add scenes—such as Scrooge visiting the Cratchits on Christmas Day, which many think are part of the original story.
Accordingly, Davis identifies the original text, and the "remembered version". The phrase " Merry Christmas " had been around for many years — the earliest known written use was in a letter in — but Dickens's use of the term in A Christmas Carol popularised the term among the Victorian public.
In the early 19th century the celebration of Christmas was associated in Britain with the countryside and peasant revels, disconnected to the increasing urbanisation and industrialisation taking place.
Davis considers that in A Christmas Carol , Dickens showed that Christmas could be celebrated in towns and cities, despite increasing modernisation.
The Oxford Movement of the s and s had produced a resurgence of the traditional rituals and religious observances associated with Christmastide and, with A Christmas Carol , Dickens captured the zeitgeist while he reflected and reinforced his vision of Christmas.
Dickens advocated a humanitarian focus of the holiday,  which influenced several aspects of Christmas that are still celebrated in Western culture, such as family gatherings, seasonal food and drink, dancing, games and a festive generosity of spirit.
The novelist William Dean Howells , analysing several of Dickens's Christmas stories, including A Christmas Carol , considered that by the "pathos appears false and strained; the humor largely horseplay; the characters theatrical; the joviality pumped; the psychology commonplace; the sociology alone funny".
Ruth Glancy, a professor of English literature, states that the largest impact of A Christmas Carol was the influence felt by individual readers.
Chesterton wrote "The beauty and blessing of the story Whether the Christmas visions would or would not convert Scrooge, they convert us.
Der Geist überlässt Scrooge zwei Kinder, die er bis dahin unter seinem Umhang versteckt hielt. Auf Scrooges Nachfrage erklärt der Geist, dass es nicht seine eigenen, sondern Kinder der Menschheit seien.
Scrooge sträubt sich gegen die Aufnahme der Kinder. Er fragt, ob sie denn keine Bleibe hätten; der Geist antwortet wiederum mit einer Gegenfrage, die ebenfalls wieder Scrooges eigene Worte darstellen: Der letzte der drei Geister erscheint Scrooge, ohne ein einziges Wort zu sagen.
Die beiden hören einem Gespräch einer Gruppe Geschäftsmänner zu. Die Männer sprechen über den Tod einer nicht namentlich genannten Person, die anscheinend einiges Geld angehäuft hatte, die aber niemand mochte.
Ein weiteres Gespräch können Scrooge und der Geist belauschen: Er hofft, mit dem Geist eine Szene in der Zukunft zu sehen, in der er selbst vorkommt und, nunmehr zum guten Menschen bekehrt, etwas Gutes bewirkt.
Stattdessen führt ihn der Geist in einen düsteren Teil der Stadt, genauer gesagt in ein Armenviertel und in diesem Viertel in ein Geschäft, dessen Eigentümer jegliche Waren aufkauft.
Nicht einer der Anwesenden zeigt Schuldgefühle, selbst als eine Frau die Bettvorhänge und das Totenhemd verkauft, die sie der auf dem Bett liegenden Leiche entwendet hatte.
Dem Leser wird überdeutlich klargemacht, wie unbeliebt der Tote gewesen sein muss. Scrooge fleht den Geist an, er möge ihm doch einen Menschen zeigen, der Emotionen wegen des toten Mannes zeigt.
Alles, was er daraufhin sieht, ist ein Paar, das sich Sorgen um einen noch nicht an den Toten zurückgezahlten Kredit macht und durch den Tod ihres Gläubigers erleichtert ist.
Da Scrooge das natürlich nicht sehen wollte, fordert er den Geist auf, ihm Traurigkeit, verursacht durch einen Tod, zu zeigen; aber auch die folgende Szene soll ihn mehr aufwühlen, als beruhigen: Zum Abschluss des Kapitels werden alle Unklarheiten aus dem Weg geräumt.
Voller Entsetzen liest Scrooge die Inschrift: Und zwar in Scrooges eigenem Bettpfosten. Völlig verwandelt und voller guter Vorsätze steht Scrooge wieder in der realen Welt: Ohne Geister und quicklebendig.
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